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阿里云ECS使用02:创建用户及磁盘挂载

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1、创建用户

Linux中root账号作为管理员使用,在一般情况下需另建账号给个人日常使用。

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# useradd zhongning
[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# passwd zhongning
Changing password for user zhongning.
New password:
BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# ls /home
zhongning
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]#

编辑sudoer文件,以便可以使用sudo命令进行系统操作,减少root账号的使用。

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# vim /etc/sudoers

## Allow root to run any commands anywhere
root ALL=(ALL) ALL
zhongning ALL
=(ALL) ALL

2、挂载硬盘

通过挂载硬盘用于数据存储,方便日后数据备份、转存、恢复。数据盘要经过分区、格式化、挂载三个步骤后,才能正常使用。

2.1、磁盘分区

使用fdisk命令,查看分配的硬件编号:

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# fdisk -l

Disk
/dev/xvda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units
= cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical
/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I
/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier:
0x00078f9c

Device Boot Start
End Blocks Id System
/dev/xvda1 * 1 2611 20970496 83 Linux

Disk
/dev/xvdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units
= cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical
/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I
/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier:
0x00000000

[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]#

上述信息显示,设备编号为/dev/xvdb的硬盘还没有使用,执行fdisk /dev/xvdb 进行分区

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier
0x917e4ba3.
Changes will remain
in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag
0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS
-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
sectors (command 'u').

Command (m
for help): h
h: unknown command
Command action
a toggle a bootable flag
b edit bsd disklabel
c toggle the dos compatibility flag
d delete a partition
l list known partition types
m print this menu
n add a new partition
o create a new empty DOS partition table
p print the partition table
q quit without saving changes
s create a new empty Sun disklabel
t change a partition's system id
u change display
/entry units
v verify the partition table
w write table to disk and exit
x extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m
for help):

而后依次输入,n:创建分区,p:创建主分区,1:主分区编号,2次回车使用所有的柱面确定分区使用所有的磁盘空间,w:写入分区表。

Command (m for help): n
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (
1-4)
p
Partition number (
1-4): 1
First cylinder (
1-2610, default 1):
Using
default value 1
Last cylinder,
+cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610):
Using
default value 2610

Command (m
for help): w
The partition table has been altered
!

Calling ioctl() to re
-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# fdisk -l

 
  

Disk /dev/xvda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00078f9c

 
  

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/xvda1 * 1 2611 20970496 83 Linux

 
  

Disk /dev/xvdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x917e4ba3

 
  

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/xvdb1 1 2610 20964793+ 83 Linux
[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]#

2.2、格式化分区

将新创建的分区/dev/xvdb1进行格式化,格式化为ext3格式

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/xvdb1
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label
=
OS type: Linux
Block size
=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size
=4096 (log=2)
Stride
=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5241198 blocks
262059 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block
=0
Maximum filesystem blocks
=4294967296
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000

Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (
32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every
32 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ ~]#

2.3、挂载分区

在根目录下创建准备挂载的目录如/data,然后使用mount命令进行挂载,用df命令查看挂载是否成功。

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# ls
bin boot dev etc home lib lib64 lost+found media mnt opt proc root sbin selinux srv sys tmp usr var
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# ls
bin boot dev etc home lib lib64 lost+found media mnt opt proc root sbin selinux srv sys tmp usr var
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# mkdir /data
[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# ls
bin boot data dev etc home lib lib64 lost+found media mnt opt proc root sbin selinux srv sys tmp usr var
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# mount /dev/xvdb1 /data
[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# df -m
Filesystem 1M-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvda1 20158 1397 17737 8% /
tmpfs
498 0 498 0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvdb1 20153 173 18957 1% /data
[root
@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]#

下面设置开机自动挂载,修改/etc/fstab文件。

[root@iZ23o5qv2ozZ /]# vim /etc/fstab#
#
/etc/fstab
#
Created by anaconda on Thu Aug 14 21:16:42 2014
#
#
Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'
#
See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info
#
UUID=94e4e384-0ace-437f-bc96-057dd64f42ee / ext4 defaults,barrier=0 1 1
tmpfs
/dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
devpts
/dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0
sysfs
/sys sysfs defaults 0 0
proc
/proc proc defaults 0 0
none
/proc/xen xenfs defaults 0 0
/dev/xvdb1 /data ext3 defaults 0 0

大功告成,over。


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